sábado, março 14, 2009

O que significou esses 15 anos com o Linux...

O Linux fez 15 anos. Em uma luta contra o preconceito este impressionante sistema operacional vem fazendo um combate épico contra as grandes potências de software. Na verdade o Linux nasceu em 1991 com a famosa mensagem de Linus Torvalds, professor no USENET informando que o seu projeto (hobby) de um sistema operacional aperfeiçoado do MINIX precisava de alguns ajustes e que ele gostaria de algumas opiniões. Baseado na licença GNU de Stallman. Linus Torvalds então lança publicamente, pelo menos para os sotudos do USENET a versão o.oo1 do seu Kernel.

Eis o bilhete:

From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds)
Newsgroups: comp.os.minix
Subject: What would you like to see most in minix?
Summary: small poll for my new operating system
Message-ID: <1991aug25.205708.9541@klaava.helsinki.fi>
Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT
Organization: University of Helsinki

Hello everybody out there using minix -
I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and
professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing
since april, and is starting to get ready.I'd like any feedback on
things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat
(same physical layout of the file-system(due to practical reasons)
among other things). I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40),and
things seem to work.This implies that I'll get something practical within a
few months, andI'd like to know what features most people would want. Any
suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them :-)
Linus (torvalds@kruuna.helsinki.fi)
PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs.
It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never
will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's
all I have :-(.

Isso foi em agosto, em setembro com as devidas correções apontadas pelos usuários e os complementos de Torvalds, ele apresenta a versão 0.002 quando então resolve chamar de Linux. Veja o segundo bilhete:
From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds)
Newsgroups: comp.os.minix
Subject: Free minix-like kernel sources for 386-AT
Message-ID: <1991oct5.054106.4647@klaava.helsinki.fi>
Date: 5 Oct 91 05:41:06 GMT
Organization: University of Helsinki
Do you pine for the nice days of minix-1.1, when men were men and wrote their own device drivers?
Are you without a nice project and just dying to cut your teeth on a OS you can try to modify for your
needs? Are you finding it frustrating when everything works on minix? No more all-nighters to get a nifty program working? Then this post might be just for you :-)
As I mentioned a month(?)ago, I'm working on a free version of a minix-lookalike for AT-386 computers. It has
finally reached the stage where it's even usable (though may not be depending on
what you want), and I am willing to put out the sources for wider distribution. It is just version 0.02 (+1 (very
small) patch already), but I've successfully run bash/gcc/gnu-make/gnu-sed/compress etc under it.
Sources for this pet project of mine can be found at nic.funet.fi ( in the directory /pub/OS/Linux.
The directory also contains some README-file and a couple of binaries to work under linux
(bash, update and gcc, what more can you ask for :-). Full kernel source is provided, as no minix code has been
used. Library sources are only partially free, so that cannot be distributed currently. The system is able to compile
"as-is" and has been known to work. Heh. Sources to the binaries (bash and gcc) can be found at the
same place in /pub/gnu.

O movimento do Linux então cresceu com a ajuda de contribuidores de códigos. Logo já estavam em número de centenas de colaboradores, depois foram para milhares, dezenas de milhares. Então em 14 de Março de 1994, Linus Trovalds lança publicamente o Linux Kernel 1.0.

Eis o bilhete:

Article 573 of comp.os.linux.announce:
Xref: cstreet comp.os.linux.announce:573 comp.os.linux.development:4739
Path: cstreet!backbone!crcnis1.unl.edu!wupost!howland.reston.ans.net!EU.net!sunic!
From: Linus Torvalds
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.development,comp.os.linux.misc
Subject: Linux 1.0---A better UNIX than Windows NT
Followup-To: comp.os.linux.misc
Date: 14 Mar 1994 12:51:16 GMT
Organization: University of Helsinki
Lines: 138
Approved: linux-announce@tc.cornell.edu (Lars Wirzenius)
Message-ID: <2m1mk4$qc9@hydra.helsinki.fi>
NNTP-Posting-Host: hydra.helsinki.fi
Summary: Linux 1.0 released
Keywords: Linux Kernel 1.0 Academy Awards
X-Moderator-Added-Keywords: universe, end of

Finally, here it is. Almost on time (being just two years late is
peanuts in the OS industry), and better than ever:

Linux kernel release 1.0

This release has no new major features compared to the pl15 kernels, but
contains lots and lots of bugfixes: all the major ones are gone, the
smaller ones are hidden better. Hopefully there are no major new ones.

The Linux kernel can be found as source on most of the Linux ftp-sites
under the names

linux-1.0.tar.gz (full source)
linux-1.0.patch.pl15.gz (patch against linux-0.99pl15)
linux-1.0.patch.alpha.gz (patch from linux-pre-1.0)

it should be available at least at the sites

pub/OS/Linux/PEOPLE/Linus (now)
pub/Linux/Incoming (now)
pub/Linux/kernel (soon)
pub/linux/sources/system (soon)
pub/Software/Linux/Kernel (now)

This release finally moves Linux out of Beta status and is meant as a
base for distributions to build on. It will neither change Linux'
status as FreeWare under the GPL, nor will it mean the end of
development on Linux. In fact many new features where held back for
later releases so that 1.0 could become a well tested and hopefully
stable release.

The Linux kernel wouldn't be where it is today without the help of lots
of people: the kernel developers, the people who did user-level programs
making linux useful, and the brave and foolhardy people who risked their
harddisks and sanity to test it all out. My thanks to you all.
(Editorial note: if you think this sounds too much like the Academy
Awards ceremony, just skip this: it's not getting any better.)

Thanks to people like Aaron Kushner, Danny ter Haar and the authors of
the AnwenderHandbuch (and others) who have helped me with hardware or
monetary donations (and to the Oxford Beer Trolls and others who took
care of the drinkware). And thanks to Dirk, who helped me write this
announcement despite my lazyness ("hey, it's just another release, who
needs an announcement anyway?").

To make a long and boring story a bit shorter and boring, here is at
least a partial list of people who have been helping make Linux what it
is today. Thanks to you all,

Krishna Balasubramanian
Arindam Banerji
Peter Bauer <100136.3530@compuserve.com>
Fred Baumgarten
Donald Becker
Stephen R. van den Berg
Hennus Bergman
Ross Biro
Bill Bogstad
John Boyd
Andries Brouwer
Remy Card
Ed Carp
Raymond Chen
Alan Cox
Laurence Culhane
Wayne Davison
Thomas Dunbar
Torsten Duwe
Drew Eckhardt
Bjorn Ekwall
Doug Evans
Rik Faith
Juergen Fischer
Jeremy Fitzhardinge
Ralf Flaxa
Nigel Gamble
Philip Gladstone
Bruno Haible
Andrew Haylett
Dirk Hohndel
Nick Holloway
Ron Holt
Rob W. W. Hooft
Michael K. Johnson
Fred N. van Kempen
Olaf Kirch
Ian Kluft
Rudolf Koenig
Bas Laarhoven
Warner Losh
H.J. Lu
Tuomas J. Lukka
Kai M"akisara
Pat Mackinlay
John A. Martin
Bradley McLean
Craig Metz
William (Bill) Metzenthen
Rick Miller
Corey Minyard
Eberhard Moenkeberg
Ian A. Murdock
Johan Myreen
Stefan Probst
Daniel Quinlan
Florian La Roche
Robert Sanders
Peter De Schrijver
Darren Senn
Chris Smith
Drew Sullivan
Tommy Thorn
Jon Tombs
Theodore Ts'o
Simmule Turner
Stephen Tweedie
Thomas Uhl
Juergen Weigert
Matt Welsh
Marco van Wieringen
Stephen D. Williams
Gunter Windau
Lars Wirzenius
Roger E. Wolff
Frank Xia
Eric Youngdale
Orest Zborowski

A more detailed list with contact and description information can be
found in the CREDITS file that accompanies the kernel sources.

Mail submissions for comp.os.linux.announce to: linux-announce@tc.cornell.edu
PLEASE remember Keywords: and a short description of the software.

Com os programas do projeto GNU e uma lista imensa de contribuidores o Linux logo se tornou um must da computação nos campus de informática.

O que é interessante na categoria do Linux é a sua maleabilidade e capacidade de adaptação. Linus implementava os códigos do Kernel de acordo com o hardware, então a cada nova grande implementação de hardware, o Kernel era ajustado para tirar vantagem em cima do equipamento. Isso acabou migrando para outras estruturas de máquinas: Alpha, Mac, PowerPC e atualmente para praticamente todos os tipos de equipamentos mais avançados como palmtops, celulares, smartphones, videogames como PS3 e XBOX 360 e até mesmo robôs e carros usando o sistema operacional mais maleável existente. Tudo isso sem gastar nada com propaganda em sua origem.

Atualmente com as distribuições se popularizando como Ubuntu, Debian, Knoppix, SUSE e fica fácil de instalar ou até mesmo apenas testar o Linux com o LiveCD, não precisa nem instalar o sistema operacional.

É verdade que ainda estamos atrás da grande Microsoft e ainda atrás da Apple, mas considerando-se que tudo o que foi feito é com base em uma comunidade preocupada com a melhoria na qualidade de tecnologia e informática e na segurança de seus usuários e absolutamente livre em todos os sentidos, o Linux é um grande Sistema Operacional no qual vai avançando em sua parcela de mercado. No Brasil ainda temos um incentivo do governo para a mudança com a adoção oficial dos softwares livres. Isso é um forte impulso para o software aberto e começa a ser seguido por outros países.

Boa sorte e bom avanço para o Linux...

Fontes: Tux Radar, The GNU Project, Linux Devices, Librenix, BR-Linux

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